Category Archives: Travel

I Gotta Crow About Kauai Chickens

A chick stopped to take a drink in the rainwater in a snorkel mask in the yard of the house where we were staying.  His mothers and siblings are just ahead.

A chick stopped to take a drink in the rainwater in a snorkel mask in the yard of the house where we were staying. His mothers and siblings are just ahead.

Clucking and crowing chickens, crashing waves and whirring helicopters are the sounds I’ll always associate with Kauai, the oldest of the main inhabited Hawaiian islands.

Every morning during our too-short visit to paradise, my husband and I awoke to huge waves crashing on the beach in the bay outside of our house and the crowing of roosters.

A mother hen and her chicks would make the rounds of the neighborhood several times a day. First, you’d hear the cheep cheep cheep of the chicks and then the occasional cluck of the mother as they pecked their way through the grass and bushes of the yard.

Helicopters were often crossing the sky to take tourists to view the many incredible sights, which have often been filmed for movies (“Jurassic Park,” is one example.) I’ve only been in a helicopter once — to fly over Maui almost 20 years ago. It was gorgeous, but I haven’t gotten up the nerve to get into a helicopter since. My husband and I did take a boat trip on this vacation. First time I ever got sea sick. (More about that later…)

Mother hens and their chicks were everywhere on Kauai.

Mother hens and their chicks were everywhere on Kauai.

Chickens were everywhere! Other islands have wild chickens, (A rooster showed up for my son’s beach wedding in St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands) but Kauai has CHICKENS. On every trail, on the beaches, in shopping center parking lots, on the sidewalks outside of restaurants, in parks, in churchyards, every neighborhood, everywhere. They are gorgeous and colorful. They are descended from the Junglefowl that the ancient Hawaiians brought with them centuries ago. They’ve bred with other types of chickens that others have brought to the island, but have mostly retained the gorgeous Junglefowl coloring. The chickens have no predator, other than man and cats, so they thrive.  People say they aren’t good to eat, so they are mostly even safe from humans. There are mongooses on some of the other islands, such as the Big Island and Maui, which eat chickens and eggs. There are mongooses on St. John, too. But mongooses were never introduced to Kauai.

Here’s What I Wrote About The Mongoose in an Earlier Post.

Here are some of my chicken photos. Yes, I do like to take photos of chickens, maybe a little too much.

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Taro — It’s What’s for Dinner

These taro fries from Tropical Taco in Hanalei, Kauai, were delicious!

These taro fries from Tropical Taco in Hanalei, Kauai, were delicious!

Taro, known in the Hawaiian language as kalo, is the Hawaiian people’s most important crop. They brought it with them in their voyaging canoes when they migrated to the Hawaiian islands at least by 1,000 A.D. and possibly as early as 200 A.D. Kaua’i was the first inhabited Hawaiian island and is where most of Hawaiian taro is grown today. Seventy percent of the taro is grown in Hanalei River Valley, which includes the 917-acre Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge.  The 917-acre refuge was established in 1972 to provide nesting and feeding habitat for endangered Hawaiian water birds, including the Hawaiian duck (koloa maoli), coot (‘alae ke’oke’o), moorhen (‘alae ‘ula), and stilt (ae’o).

The Hanalei River was designated an American Heritage River on July 30, 1998. The major bridge across the river (still one lane) is on Hawaii Route 560, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Hawaii.  When you’re waiting to cross the bridge to the town of Hanalei, you can see the taro fields beyond.

A taro field in the Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge in northern Kauai.

A taro field in the Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge in northern Kauai.

A tractor prepares a taro field in the Hanalei River Valley.

A tractor prepares a taro field in the Hanalei River Valley.

Water flows from a taro field in Limahuli Garden in northern Kauai. The rock walls you can see in the background are part of an important archeological site and are about 700 years old.

Water flows from a taro field in Limahuli Garden in northern Kauai. The rock walls you can see in the background are part of an important archeological site and are about 700 years old.

The rock walls surrounding the taro fields are estimated to be about 700 years old in the Limahuli Tropical Botanical Garden in north Kauai west of Hanalei. The rock walls were part of an irrigation system that diverted some water from the Limahuli River to grow taro.

The rock walls surrounding the taro fields are estimated to be about 700 years old in the Limahuli Tropical Botanical Garden in north Kauai west of Hanalei. The rock walls were part of an irrigation system that diverted some water from the Limahuli River to grow taro.

I've never eaten a McDonald's pie before, but we couldn't resist trying this taro version at a McDonald's in Lihue, Kauai. It tasted like pineapple, which was likely an added flavor, because our taro fries didn't taste like pineapple. Anyway, it wasn't bad for a fried fast food pie.

I’ve never eaten a McDonald’s pie before, but we couldn’t resist trying this taro version at a McDonald’s in Lihue, Kauai. It tasted like pineapple, which was likely an added flavor, because our taro fries didn’t taste like pineapple. Anyway, it wasn’t bad for a fried fast food pie.

You can see the taro fields on either side of the Hanalei River.  This is also a wildlife refuge.

You can see the taro fields on either side of the Hanalei River. This is also a wildlife refuge.

Limahuli Garden and Preserve in northern Kauai.

Limahuli Garden and Preserve in northern Kauai.

Terraced taro fields are in the Limahuli Garden and Preserve.  The rock walls you can see in the background are part of an important archeological site and are about 700 years old.

Terraced taro fields are in the Limahuli Garden and Preserve. The rock walls you can see in the background are part of an important archeological site and are about 700 years old.

Here are some traditional Hawaiian foods, including taro, dried coconut and dried fish. We tried these foods at a Hawaiian ceremony in a park on the Kona Coast of the Big Island on February 2011.

Here are some traditional Hawaiian foods, including taro, dried coconut and dried fish. We tried these foods at a Hawaiian ceremony in a park on the Kona Coast of the Big Island on February 2011.

About Poi, Poi to the World.

Wikipedia: About Taro.

Here’s an excerpt about taro in Hawaii from the Wikipedia Entry for Taro: In Hawaii, taro, or kalo in the Hawaiian language, is a traditional form of food sustenance and nutrition, known from ancient Hawaiian culture. The contemporary Hawaiian diet consists of many tuberous plants, particularly sweet potato and taro. Some of the uses for taro include poi, table taro, taro chips, and luau leaf. In Hawaii, taro is farmed under either dryland or wetland conditions. Taro farming in the Hawaiian islands is especially challenging because of difficulties in accessing fresh water. Taro is usually grown in pondfields known as loʻi in Hawaiian. Cool, flowing water yields the best crop. Typical dryland or upland varieties (varieties grown in watered but not flooded fields) in Hawaii are lehua maoli and bun long, the latter widely known as Chinese taro. Bun long is used for making taro chips. Dasheen (also called “eddo”) is another “dryland” variety of C. esculenta grown for its edible corms or sometimes just as an ornamental plant.

The Hawaii Agricultural Statistics Service puts the 10-year median production of taro in the Hawaiian Islands at about 6.1 million pounds (2,800 t; Viotti, 2004). However, 2003 taro production in Hawaii was only 5 million pounds (2,300 t), an all-time low (record keeping started in 1946). The previous low, reached in 1997, was 5.5 million pounds (2,500 t). Despite generally growing demand, production was even lower in 2005: only 4 million pounds, with kalo for processing into poi accounting for 97.5%. Urbanization has driven down harvests from a high of 14.1 million pounds (6,400 t) in 1948, but more recently the decline has resulted from pests and diseases. A non-native apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is a major culprit in the current crop decline. Also, a plant rot disease traced to a newly identified species of the fungal genus Phytophthora now plagues crops throughout the state. Although pesticides could control both pests to some extent, pesticide use in the pondfields is barred because of the clear opportunity for chemicals to quickly migrate into streams and then into the ocean.

Important aspects of Hawaiian culture revolves around taro cultivation and consumption. For example, the newer name for a traditional Hawaiian feast, luau, comes from the taro. Young taro tops baked with coconut milk and chicken or octopus arms are frequently served at luaus. Also, one cannot fight when a bowl of poi is open. By ancient Hawaiian custom, it is considered disrespectful to fight in front of an elder. One should not raise the voice, speak angrily, or make rude comments or gestures. An open poi bowl is connected to this concept because Haloa (Taro) is the name of the first-born son of the parents who begat the human race. The ancient Hawaiians identified so strongly with taro that the Hawaiian term for family, `ohana, is derived from the word `oha, the shoot or sucker which grows from the taro corm. As young shoots grow from the corm, so people grow from their family.

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Hanalei Bay Surfing Dog

A man and his dog paddleboard in Hanalei Bay on the island of Kaua'i in Hawai'i.

A man and his dog paddleboard in Hanalei Bay on the island of Kaua’i in Hawai’i.

The surf on most of the north shore of Kaua’i was rough when my husband and I visited there in late February and early March 2014, but the waves on the north shore’s Hanalei Bay were not as wild as the rest of the coast.  I’m no expert, but Hanalei Bay seems a good place to surf.  It’s shallow, there’s a great pier and a nice beach with lots of parking. Plenty of people of all ages were surfing and paddleboarding, including this man and his dog.

While a crowd of us on the pier watched the action, I heard someone say that this man has a website.  I didn’t catch the name, and I couldn’t find any information when I searched online for Hanalei “surfing dog” and “paddleboard dog.”  Maybe someone can help me and link the website in the comments?

A man and his dog paddleboard in Hanalei Bay on the island of Kaua'i in Hawai'i.

A man and his dog paddleboard in Hanalei Bay on the island of Kaua’i in Hawai’i.

Several major films were shot at Hanalei Bay including: academy award winner “The Descendents” along with “Soul Surfer,” “South Pacific,” “Miss Sadie Hawkins,” “Pagan Love Song” and “Honeymoon in Vegas.”

Other north shore of Kauai film locations include Limahuli Gardens in Hanalei, featured in “Jurassic Park,” and Honopu and Kalalau Beach on the Na Pali Coast, featured in “King Kong” and “Pirates.”

Hanalei Bay Featured in Movie Locations

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Texas Rose Festival Queen’s Tea in 2011

Here's a view of the gorgeous train of the 2011 Texas Rose Festival Queen at the Queen's Tea, held the third weekend in October every year at the Tyler Municipal Rose Garden.

Here’s a view of the gorgeous train of the 2011 Texas Rose Festival Queen at the Queen’s Tea, held the third weekend in October every year at the Tyler Municipal Rose Garden.

It’s time for the  2013 Texas Rose Festival, which is October 17th – 20th. This year’s festival, the 80th, features “Raindrops on Roses and Other Favorite Things” as its theme.  The Texas Rose Festival started in 1933 and is held every year on the third weekend in October at the Tyler Municipal Rose Garden.

Here are photographs from the 2011 Queen’s Tea at the Tyler Municipal Rose Garden, as part of the festivities of the 2011 Texas Rose Festival. Click on the thumbnails to see full size-size photos with captions in a slide show.

One of the biggest events in the Texas Rose Festival is the parade, which you can read about by clicking on 2011 Texas Rose Festival Parade.  Lots of photos!
About the Texas Rose Festival.

Official Texas Rose Festival Website.

Tyler Municipal Rose Garden.

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Racing Bison in Yellowstone National Park

Bison race along the Yellowstone River in the Hayden valley of Yellowstone National Park .

Bison race along the Yellowstone River in the Hayden valley of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, enjoying the sunny day.

In the last week of August 2013, these bison were racing along the Yellowstone River in the Hayden Valley of Yellowstone National Park, enjoying the warm weather.  The third bison, the one in back, quickly dropped out of the race.  I entered another photo of this bison race in the Official Federal Recreation Lands 2013 Photo Contest.  Click on these links to see my entries (and vote, if you would be so kind!) and also learn about the contest.  Photographs taken on America’s federal lands, national parks and historical sites from Jan. 1, 2011, through Dec. 31, 2013, are eligible.  Did I mention there were prizes! If you enter the contest, be sure to put the link to your photos in the comment section.

“Racing Bison” Entry.

“Two Bison on the Overlook” Entry.

“Paddle Boarder in Trunk Bay in Virgin Islands National Park” entry.

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Massive Fire Near Yosemite National Park

A giant sequoia towers above visitors to Tuolumne Grove in Yosemite National Park. Tuolumne is one of three named sequoia groves in Yosemite.

A giant sequoia towers above visitors to Tuolumne Grove in Yosemite National Park. Tuolumne is one of three named sequoia groves in Yosemite.

A year ago (September 2012) my husband and I visited Yosemite National Park, a magnificent place.  Here are some photos from the Tuolumne Grove of Giant Sequoias, which is near the Rim Fire, California’s fourth largest fire since 1932. It’s burning an area more than seven times larger than San Francisco (about 368 square miles), according to an NBC story. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection reported that the Rim Fire was 75% contained Tuesday, Sept. 3, 2013.

The Yosemite park staff posted this on its Facebook page: Giant sequoias are resistant to, and thrive on, frequent small fires that naturally burned every several years. In order to protect the giant sequoias from the extremely intense Rim Fire, crews performed some protective work in the Tuolumne Grove of Giant Sequoias just over a week ago (as you can see in this video). Since then, firing operations in the area have provided additional protection. So, while fire maps show the Tuolumne Grove within the fire perimeter, the giant sequoias are safe. 

You can see the video by clicking on Post by Yosemite National Park.

Yosemite National Park Facebook Page

Why a Century of Fire Prevention Means Trouble for Yosemite’s Giant Sequoias

Click on any thumbnail to see a much larger size in a slide show, including Tuolumne Signs in a readable size.

Yosemite National Park video.

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Drive-By Tourist in Boston

My daughter, son-in-law and I were stuck in traffic during Boston rush hour after leaving the Museum of Science. That's when I saw the Bunker Hill obelisk.

My daughter, son-in-law and I were stuck in traffic during Boston rush hour after leaving the Museum of Science. That’s when I saw the Bunker Hill Monument.

Earlier this month, my daughter, son-in-law and I left the Museum of Science in Boston at the beginning of rush hour. Stuck in traffic, I was happy to see that I could notch another site on my tourist belt without leaving the car when I saw the Bunker Hill Monument through the windshield.  On my left was Bunker Hill Community College. I leaned out of the window and grabbed a couple of shots. I was going to straighten the photo I included here, but that would have cut out some of the signs. In the sky, you can just make out a jet airplane, which you can see when you click on the photo to see it full size.

The obelisk commemorates the Battle of Bunker Hill, which took place in the Charlestown area of Boston during the American Revolutionary War. The Americans lost the battle, which took place on June 17, 1775, but the British lost so many men, including many officers, that it was a Phyrric victory in which the gain was small but the cost was very high. The order “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes” was made popular in stories about the battle of Bunker Hill, although that wasn’t the first case in which that phrase was used.

The Bunker Hill Monument stands 221 feet (67 m) high on Breed’s Hill. The Marquis de Lafayette laid the cornerstone on June 17, 1825, the fiftieth anniversary of the battle.  Daniel Webster delivered an address during the cornerstone dedication. Soil from Bunker Hill was sprinkled on the graves of Lafayette and his wife. Some day, I need to return to visit the Bunker Hill Monument site on foot.

About the Battle of Bunker Hill.

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Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas

A view of the sunset from Cameron Bluff Overlook in Mount Magazine State park in Arkansas.

Visiting the Cameron Bluff Overlook at sunset in Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas is a great way to end a day.

Sometimes we take our neighbors for granted.   The state line of Arkansas is about four hours from my house, but I’ve visited that state just twice until this May when my husband and I and some friends went to Mount Magazine State Park.

I shouldn’t have waited so long!  It’s gorgeous.  Mount Magazine  is the highest point in the Arkansas with sweeping views of river valleys.  The weather was volatile while we were there with lots of fast-moving clouds, some thunderstorms and tornadoes to the south and west. The park’s Lodge overlooks the Petit Jean River Valley and Blue Mountain Lake.  From the balcony in our room, we could see the clouds sweeping past, and during a storm, lightning flashed in the clouds almost at eye level. I’ll let my photographs do the rest of the talking. I’ll also be posting about a day trip to Little Rock, where we visited the William J. Clinton Presidential Center and the Arkansas state capitol building, and also a post on Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art in Bentonville.

You can find great photographs, trail maps, wildlife and plants facts, lists of activities, lodging and camping details and other information at the Mount Magazine State Park Website Wildlife viewing is great in the park.  Many brochures with wildlife checklists and other information are available at the Lodge and at the park’s visitor center.

About the Arkansas State Butterfly — the Diana Fritillary.

About the Arkansas State Mammal — the Whitetail Deer.

From top left, clockwise are a chipmunk, white-tailed deer, zebra butterfly, Diana Fritillary Butterfly and the ruby-throated hummingbird.  I photographed these animals in Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas in late May 2013.  The White-tailed  deer, the Arkansas state mammal, is feasting on a white oak leaf.  The Diana Fritillary Buttery is Arkansas' state butterfly.  This poor butterfly is very tattered, as is the Zebra butterfly, which is the state butterfly of Tennessee. It's a hard, hard life for butterflies.

From top left, clockwise are a chipmunk, white-tailed deer, zebra butterfly, Diana Fritillary Butterfly and the ruby-throated hummingbird. I photographed these animals in Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas in late May 2013. The White-tailed deer, the Arkansas state mammal, is feasting on a white oak leaf. The Diana Fritillary Butterfly is the Arkansas’ state butterfly. This poor butterfly is very tattered, as is the Zebra butterfly, which is the state butterfly of Tennessee. It’s a hard, hard life for butterflies.

Here's a view from Bear Hollow Trail in Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas.

Here’s a view from Bear Hollow Trail in Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas.

Pink roses grow among the rocks along Bear Hollow Trail in Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas.

Pink roses grow among the rocks along Bear Hollow Trail in Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas.

These sassafras trees in Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas are some of the tallest in the state.

These sassafras trees in Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas are some of the tallest in the state.

This young sassafras tree stands beneath some of the tallest sassafras trees in Arkansas.  Sassafras extract from the roots was a primary ingredient in root beer.

This young sassafras tree stands beneath some of the tallest sassafras trees in Arkansas. Sassafras extract from the roots was a primary ingredient in root beer.

A model of Mount Magazine is on display in the Lodge.

A model of Mount Magazine is on display in the Lodge.

Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas truly is an island in the sky.

Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas truly is an island in the sky.

A section of the Lodge in Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas.

A section of the Lodge in Mount Magazine State Park in Arkansas.

We climbed to Signal Hill on Mount Magazine, the highest point in Arkansas.  It's surrounded by trees so there aren't any panoramic views from this spot.

We climbed to Signal Hill on Mount Magazine, the highest point in Arkansas. It’s surrounded by trees so there aren’t any panoramic views from this spot.

 This survey marker plaque on Signal Hill of Mount Magazine from the U.S. Department of Interior indicates the highest point in Arkansas (2,753 feet above sea level) and sits in a 400 square feet stone map of Arkansas.  The stone map was built to a scale of one foot equals 13 miles.  On the stone map, the survey marker is positioned on the location of Mount Magazine.

This survey marker plaque on Signal Hill of Mount Magazine from the U.S. Department of Interior indicates the highest point in Arkansas (2,753 feet above sea level) and sits in a 400 square feet stone map of Arkansas. The stone map was built to a scale of one foot equals 13 miles. On the stone map, the survey marker is positioned on the location of Mount Magazine.

Yellow-Bellied Sapsucker birds made hundreds of holes in this sugar maple tree.  Sap oozes from the holes, attracting insects, which the sap-suckers eat. Very clever!  Settlers harvested sap from these trees to make maple syrup.  Forty gallons of sugar maple sap is needed to produce one gallon of syrup.

Yellow-Bellied Sapsucker birds made hundreds of holes in this sugar maple tree. Sap oozes from the holes, attracting insects, which the sap-suckers eat. Very clever! Settlers harvested sap from these trees to make maple syrup. Forty gallons of sugar maple sap is needed to produce one gallon of syrup.

There are many beautiful hiking trails on Mount magazine.

There are many beautiful hiking trails on Mount Magazine.

The dining room in the Lodge at Mount Magazine is beautiful with beautiful views.

The dining room in the Lodge at Mount Magazine is beautiful with beautiful views.

Here’s a video with many views of the Lodge at Mount Magazine.

Click on any thumbnail photo to see a full-size version in a new window.

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Every Paris Needs An Eiffel Tower

The Logan County Courthouse stands to the left of this Eiffel Tower Mural in Paris, Arkansas.  Travels pass through town on their way to Magazine Mountain State Park to the south. I hope some stop to enjoy this Parisian view.

The Logan County Courthouse stands to the left of this Eiffel Tower Mural in Paris, Arkansas. Travelers pass through town on their way to Mount Magazine State Park to the south. I hope some stop to enjoy this Parisian view.

On our way to Mount Magazine State Park in northeastern Arkansas in May, we drove through the charming town of Paris, Arkansas. I’m glad I wanted to take a photo of the court house, or I would have missed the Eiffel Tower mural. (My husband, who was driving, has so much patience.)

There are more than 20 cities and towns in the United States named Paris. Most sites list the number as 23, but others credit Paris towns that have been re-named, such Beresford, South Dakota, which was known as Paris, Dakota Territory until 1884. The only other Paris that I’ve visited, other than Paris, France, is Paris, Texas. According to Wikipedia, there’s a 70-foot Eiffel Tower replica in the Texas Paris with a red cowboy hat on top, but I haven’t seen it in person — yet.

About Paris, Arkansas.

Here's a view of the Eiffel Tower Mural in Paris, Arkansas.  Every Paris needs an Eiffel Tower.

Here’s a view of the Eiffel Tower Mural in Paris, Arkansas. Every Paris needs an Eiffel Tower.

Click on the thumbnails to get a full-size view.

A list of Paris towns and cities in the United States.
New Paris, Indiana
New Paris, Ohio
New Paris, Pennsylvania
New Paris, Wisconsin
Paris, Arkansas
Paris, Dakota Territory
Paris, Georgia
Paris, Idaho
Paris, Illinois
Paris, Kentucky
Paris, Maine (including South Paris)
Paris, Michigan
Paris, Missouri
Paris, New York
Paris, Ohio
Paris, Pennsylvania
Paris, Tennessee
Paris, Texas
Paris, Virginia
Paris, Grant County, Wisconsin
Paris, Kenosha County, Wisconsin
Paris Township, Michigan
St. Paris, Ohio
West Paris, Maine

I took this photo on the Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada, in 2007, of the Eiffel Tower replica at Paris Las Vegas. I'm adding it at the request of a commenter, even though it's not in a  town named Paris.

I took this photo on the Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada, in 2007, of the Eiffel Tower replica at Paris Las Vegas. I’m adding it at the request of a commenter, even though it’s not in a town named Paris.

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The Azalea Trail in Tyler, Texas

A Garden Along the Azalea TrailA Garden Along the Azalea Trail in Tyler, Texas, in April 2013.


Every spring, Tyler, Texas, bursts into bloom. Like floral fireworks. Everywhere you look are gorgeous flowering shrubs and trees, such as azaleas, dogwoods, redbuds and wisteria, as well as daffodils and other spring flowering bulbs. Tyler celebrates its Spring flowers with its Azalea Trail, which starts in mid-March and runs through the first week of April. In 2013, Tyler celebrated its 54th annual Azalea & Spring Flower Trail.

Tyler doesn’t stop with azaleas. Oh, no. Tyler is also the Rose Capital of America, the location of the Tyler Rose Garden, the nation’s largest municipal rose garden. The city hosts the Annual Texas Rose Festival each October, which I’ve been lucky enough to attend twice — so far.

Tyler is definitely the place to be for floral fanatics!

On the Azalea Trail, there are two marked routes: the Lindsey Trail and the Dobbs Trail, which includes the Azalea National Historic District, established in 2003, and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Azalea Trail Gazebo

Click on the thumbnail photographs to see full-size photos. The last photo is of Texas Bluebonnets, the Texas State Flower, which are wildflowers that bloom at the same time as the azaleas. Links to the history of and information about the Azalea Trail and the Texas Rose Festival are at the bottom.

About the Tyler Texas, Azalea Trail, including lots of photos.

National Register of Historic Places in Smith County, Texas

About the Texas Rose Festival.

My Blog Post about the Texas Rose Festival.

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