I rarely see katydids, unlike their grasshopper distant relatives, which boldly munch on my flowers and vegetables. Katydids are more reclusive, heard but not often seen. They are related to crickets, another noisy insect. Katydids’ green leaf-shaped wings help them to blend in with the greenery. This “katydidn’t” get the memo. He (or she) was resting on the sidewalk, where he definitely didn’t blend in. How long before a hungry bird finds him?
Tag Archives: Biology
Years ago in a biology class, I learned about the Indian Mongoose’s introduction to Hawaii (in 1883) as a predator to kill the rats that were thriving in sugar cane fields. Well, like so many ideas like this, it was a disaster (rabbits to Australia, for example…) The mongooses ate the native birds and their eggs instead.
I’d forgotten about the mongoose until I recently saw one dashing across the road on the Big Island of Hawaii, where they are pests. As it dashed, it looked like a small ferret. Every so often, my husband and I would see another one running like mad across the road. I was never fast enough with my camera. Finally, I did get a few blurry photographs of a mongoose that seemed to live in the bushes of someone’s yard outside of a botanical garden. When it stands, it looks like a meerkat, which is one of its relatives.
From wikipedia: The 1800s were a huge century for sugar cane, and plantations shot up on many tropical islands including Hawai’i and Jamaica. With sugar cane came rats, attracted to the sweet plant, which ended up causing crop destruction and loss. Attempts were made to introduce the species in Trinidad in 1870 but this failed. A subsequent trial with four males and five females from Calcutta however established in Jamaica in 1872. A paper published by W. B. Espeut that praised the results intrigued Hawaiian plantation owners who, in 1883, brought 72 mongooses from Jamaica to the Hamakua Coast on the Big Island. These were raised and their offspring were shipped to plantations on other islands. Populations that have been introduced to these islands show larger sizes than in their native ranges. They also show genetic diversification due to drift and population isolation.
Only the islands of Lana’i and Kaua’i are (thought to be) free of mongooses. There are two conflicting stories of why Kaua’i was spared. The first is that the residents of Kaua’i were opposed to having the animals on the island and when the ship carrying the offspring reached Kaua’i, the animals were thrown overboard and drowned. A second story tells that on arriving on Kaua’i one of the mongooses bit a dockworker who, in a fit of anger, threw the caged animals into the harbor to drown.
The mongoose introduction did not have the desired effect of rat control. The mongoose hunted birds and bird eggs, threatening many local island species. The mongooses bred prolifically with males becoming sexually mature at 4 months and females producing litters of 2-5 pups a year.
If that isn’t bad enough, Mongooses can carry the infectious bacterial disease Leptospirosis.
KU Professor to help send monarchs into space
By RON SYLVESTER
The Wichita Eagle
(published in Kansas City Star on Nov. 16, 2009)
LAWRENCE, Kan. – (By Ron Sylvester) Chip Taylor is used to people giving him strange looks.
As director of Monarch Watch and professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Kansas, Taylor has placed radio tags on butterflies and tracked them across pastures and plains.
Sending monarchs to space is not that far-out an idea to him.
Three of Taylor’s monarch caterpillars are set to blast off to the International Space Station on Monday aboard the space shuttle Atlantis.
Why send butterflies to space?
To study the effects of gravity.
And yes, the thought of sending butterflies to space has drawn some quizzical looks.
But Taylor is used to that in his field.
“We got strange looks last summer when I was working with National Geographic and we radio tagged a butterfly,” Taylor said. “We have to go knock on somebody’s door and say ‘Can we go look for our radio-tagged butterfly? We think it landed in your pasture.’ I mean, you talk about having strange looks.”
Studying insects helps us learn how the world around us works, Taylor said, and how it affects our lives.
“The nature of what we do is to find out what life is all about,” Taylor said. “When you’re doing that sort of thing you’re up close and personal with all these insects, and that’s something people aren’t comfortable with.”
About 600 individuals and schools will be able to watch the caterpillars develop as they orbit in the space station, about 220 miles outside the earth’s atmosphere.
The schools will receive their own caterpillars in a small rearing station similar to that in the space station.
Students will watch those in their classrooms develop and compare them to how the caterpillars grow in space. Researchers hope they’ll turn into butterflies sometime after Thanksgiving.
The object, Taylor said, is to see how gravity, or the near-zero gravity in the space station, affects the insects. These will be the first of their species to travel in space.
“It is so gravity oriented,” Taylor said. “None of the insects they’ve taken up into space have had a particularly strong gravity orientation. The monarchs do. They’re going to be in a nearly weightless environment. It could pose all sorts of different problems for them.”
That will tell scientists more about movement and how life functions, said Steve Hawley, Kansas professor of physics and astronomy and an astronaut on five shuttle missions.
“The more we learn about how physiology works in space whether it’s human physiology or insect physiology or plant physiology the more we’ll be able to use that information on the ground to understand fundamentally how biological systems work,” Hawley said in a statement from the university.
Monarch Watch is working on the project with the BioServe Space Technologies program at the University of Colorado.
Stefanie Countryman, business development manager with BioServe, said their program created habitat and stringent requirements for the butterflies in space.
But they had no food.
Taylor and his Kansas program developed an artificial food for the caterpillars. That’s how they’ll eat in space.
Since April, Taylor has been perfecting the artificial diet.
“That’s what’s making this all possible,” Taylor said.
A study guide being sent to the schools explains that monarch caterpillars walk with 16 legs and spin silk to attach themselves to surfaces.
“What will happen when they lose their grip?” the guide asks, referring to the force of gravity on liftoff or the weightlessness of space.
How the caterpillars are able to react could teach astronauts how to move better in space, the study guide says.
“You win if they succeed, you win if they fail, because you learn something,” Taylor said. “You learn what their limitations are when they fail. You learn how they adjust if they succeed.”
People will be able to follow the experiment through photos, videos and other information at the program’s Web site: http://www.monarchwatch.org/space.
Information from: The Wichita Eagle, http://www.kansas.com
One of the highlights of the annual fall open house at Monarch Watch is Butterfly School, in which Chip Taylor, founder and director of Monarch Watch, demonstrates how to catch, hold, tag and release a Monarch butterfly before it begins its migration to its winter home in Mexico.
The weather for this fall’s event (Sept. 12) was warm and sunny, so the butterflies were very active but with the right technique (wait until they stop to refuel on a flower, don’t chase them!) they were easily captured in a net so that a small tag could be placed on a wing to help to track the butterfly’s migration patterns. Monarch Watch is on the west campus of the University of Kansas in Lawrence.
Soon these tagged Monarchs will be joining hundreds of millions of other Monarchs in one of nature’s greatest natural wonders.
In North America the Monarchs migrate south starting in August until the first frost. A northward migration takes place in the spring. The Monarch is the only butterfly that migrates both north and south, although no single individual makes the entire round trip. The Monarchs tagged east of the Rocky Mountains spend the winter in Mexico and start to breed on their trip back home as soon as they encounter milkweed along the route. This is why it’s so important for people to plant milkweed in their gardens to help the Monarchs along the way. Find out about starting a Monarch Butterfly Waystation by visiting Monarch Watch’s website. Because of development and agriculture, milkweed is being destroyed in the areas Monarchs have used in the past. Drought and cold weather also reduces the amount of milkweed available.
The tagging students were preparing for the Jayhawk Audubon Society and Monarch Watch annual tagging event for the public at the Baker University Wetlands along 31st Street between Haskell and Louisiana in Lawrence, Kansas. The annual tagging event is open to everyone, with instructions given at the site. The 2009 event is scheduled for 7:30 AM until 11:30 AM on Saturday, September 19, 2009. More information can be found by clicking on the Monarch Watch website in my blogroll at the right.
In 2001, 325 participants tagged nearly 3000 of the estimated 20,000 Monarchs present, and at least 85 of those tagged were recovered at the winter roost sites in Mexico, according to Monarch Watch. Almost as many were tagged in 2008. You can view all of the recoveries tagged at these events by searching for Lawrence-tagged Monarchs on the Monarch Watch searchable recovery database on its website. Click on this to find out more about the tagging process and why it’s done.
Every year, up to hundreds of thousands of Monarchs stop on their way south to refuel on the nectar from the ocean of yellow Bidens flowers at the wetlands, which is an amazing sight.
Monarch Watch is dedicated to the education about, conservation of and research about Monarch butterflies. It works closely with schools and with researchers. Research into Monarch migration is providing extensive information about genetics, for example.
Taylor and others went to the wintering site in Mexico in March 2009. Here’s part of what Taylor had to say about a new Disney film, taken from the Monarch Watch blog. It’s very exciting. “While I enjoyed the entire trip, and this agreeable bunch, I had a side adventure: I spent 4 extraordinary days working with a film crew funded by Disney at El Rosario. It was total monarch immersion, all day every day, from 6AM to 7PM. The film crew was the largest I’ve worked with and there were three cameras going most of the time. The footage will be spectacular and like no other on monarchs to date.Disney has commissioned a series of nature films, and this film about pollination and pollinators is scheduled for theaters in 2010-2011. The working title for the film is “Naked Beauty” – but the bets are the title will be changed in time to something like “Nature’s Beauty: A love story that feeds the world”. The film’s message is important and timely. Nature’s beauty, as represented by numerous pollinators and the fruits, nuts, berries, and seeds that are the products of their efforts, will be skillfully and dramatically presented through the masterful direction and loving eye of the film’s director, Louie Schwartzberg.”
I’ve posted several other articles about Monarch Watch and butterflies, which you can find through my search button. The Monarch Watch site has many articles on the butterfly’s biology, reproductive needs and the The Top Ten Butterfly Facts. You can also find out how you can raise your own Monarchs.
Wikipedia has links, charts and photographs about the Monarch Butterfly. Monarchs have spread widely and can even be found in New Zealand. There’s a white version in Hawaii.
My garden is a hang-out for bees of all kinds — honey bees, native bees, carpenter bees. I love watching them going about their business and am glad to help out keeping them fed. Bees are important pollinators. Pollination is essential for most of our food crops.
The honey bee population has dropped dramatically in recent years, and scientists are trying to find the causes. They’ve discovered a number of reasons. Below is a link to a New York Times article with comments about the bee situation from entomologists and beekeepers. (There haven’t been many butterflies this year in the Midwest, which I’ll write about later. )
Room for Debate: Saving Bees: What We Know Now. — Lessons from the battle against colony collapse disorder, which is still decimating hives. Also check out Monarch Watch and Pollinator Partnership in my blogroll.
Every day, I watch the progress of the Black Swallowtail (BST) caterpillars on my huge bronze fennel plant, which is home to a lot of other insects, including this character (see photo) who seemed to be hanging out and doing nothing while sitting on a fennel flower. Very suspicious. I thought he was up to no good. He gave me this look that said: “Hey, Lady, Don’t look at me. I’m just minding my own business.” Yes, exactly. What was his business? What did he eat? He wasn’t sipping flower nectar like the bees and wasps and occasional butterfly. I confess after a couple of days, I gave the fennel a shake and this bug tumbled to the earth. The next day I saw him slowly making his way back to the top. I don’t know how much I should interfere to protect “my” BST caterpillars. Was this a “good” bug or a “bad” bug?
I emailed Monarch Watch at the University of Kansas about this bug. Jim Lovett replied: “Looks like an immature wheel bug to me (Order: Hemiptera; Family: Reduviidae)…if you’re not familiar with this bug be sure to check out some images of the adult. It’s a neat little critter that always captures people’s attention – “little” of course is relative; adults wheel bugs can be 1.5 inches long. They use that piercing/sucking beak to puncture their prey (and can inflict a painful “bite” on us humans if mishandled). FYI – all hemipterans (the “true bugs”) have piercing/sucking mouthparts.”
I asked whether this bug would eat a BST caterpillar.
Jim’s answer: “Yes, it would. It is a common predator on caterpillars (and other soft-bodied insects) of all sorts.”
Here’s a link Jim suggested: Wheel Bug. The Wheel Bug is the largest member of the Assassin Bug family and is related to stink bugs. Mean and smelly! But useful, too, because they eat a lot of damaging caterpillars.
The next day, the Wheel Bug disappeared and so did a few of my smaller BST caterpillars. I hope Mr. Wheely didn’t eat my caterpillars!
My friend Anita, who lives in Canberra, emailed me this story. We traveled together in Tasmania in January of this year and saw these poppy fields, and we saw wallabies lounging in rutabaga fields, but we didn’t get to see this!
Stoned wallabies make crop circles
Thu Jun 25, 2009 1:30pm EDT
SYDNEY (Reuters) – The mystery of crop circles in poppy fields in Australia’s southern island state of Tasmania has been solved — stoned wallabies are eating the poppy heads and hopping around in circles.
“We have a problem with wallabies entering poppy fields, getting as high as a kite and going around in circles,” the state’s top lawmaker Lara Giddings told local media on Thursday.
“Then they crash. We see crop circles in the poppy industry from wallabies that are high,” she said.
Many people believe crop circles that mysteriously appear in fields around the world are created by aliens.
Poppy producer Tasmanian Alkaloids said livestock which ate the poppies were known to “act weird” — including deer and sheep in the state’s highlands.
“There have been many stories about sheep that have eaten some of the poppies after harvesting and they all walk around in circles,” said field operations manager Rick Rockliff.
Australia produces about 50 percent of the world’s raw material for morphine and related opiates.
In the Midwest, Master Gardener J. G. has planted a complete banquet for pollinating insects, such as bees and butterflies. There are plants for all stages in an insect’s life. One section of her garden is devoted to native prairie plants, such as the common milkweed, which has a wonderful fragrance and beautiful flowers. Monarch caterpillars are dependent on milkweed leaves and flowers for food, and other insects drink the nectar. The garden is a certified Monarch Watch monarch butterfly waystation that provides milkweed, nectar sources and shelter for monarchs as they migrate through North America.
Honey bees were busy getting nectar and pollen in the milkweed flowers when we toured J.G.’s garden. One honey bee wasn’t so lucky. A crab spider grabbed it and paralyzed it for its own dinner. Crab spiders don’t spin webs but hide on plants, waiting for prey to visit.
It was a hot, humid day, and few butterflies appeared. J.G. called out the names of the few that passed through — fritillary, painted lady, skipper. I recognized a Monarch butterfly that flitted over the milkweed, settling just for a moment, before leaving.
To learn more about butterflies in the Kansas City area click on this links and do a search on butterflies: Johnson County Extension Office. Other useful links: Monarch Watch and look for Bug Girl’s Blog, Anna’s Bee World and Pollinator Partnership in my blog roll. If you’re buying from Amazon.com, use the Monarch Watch portal on my blogroll. I’ll be posting more about J.G’s garden, including her leaf cutter bee boxes.
Kookaburra Kookaburra sits on the old gum tree
Merry merry king of the bush is he
Laugh Kookaburra, laugh Kookaburra
Gay your life must be
Kookaburra sits on the old gum tree
Eating all the gumdrops he can see
Stop Kookaburra, stop Kookaburra
Leave some gums for me
Kookaburra sits on the old gum tree
Counting all the monkeys he can see
Stop Kookaburra, stop Kookaburra
That’s no monkey, that’s ME!!!
At Girl Scout camp in Kansas, we roasted marshmallows and sang about the Kookaburra. I had no idea what a kookaburra was. And a gum tree? What was that? Was it spearmint, doublemint or Juicy Fruit?
Finally, I got to Australia and met this large laughing bird, which sits high in eucalyptus (gum) trees on the lookout for snakes, lizards and baby birds (ugh). It’s also called the “Laughing Jackass.” It gets to be about 17 inches long and will smash its food, whether a snake or a baby bird, against a rock to break its bones to make the prey easier to swallow. The kookaburra is an essential part of the Australian ecosystem, especially when it eats those very poisonous Aussie snakes. The bird at work, though, doesn’t paint a lovely lyrical picture for me.
The song was written by an Australian woman, but kookaburras don’t eat gum drops or any seeds, and there aren’t any monkeys in Australia, except in zoos. What kind of a song is that to teach to children!
You won’t see the kookaburra at the bird feeder with the cockatoos, rainbow lorikeets and the rosellas, but it might swoop into an Aussie backyard (or “garden”) for some barbecue.
In Sydney at the house of friends who lived in a wooded area, we awoke at daybreak every morning to a chorus of kookaburras, otherwise known as the bushman’s alarm clock.
Half asleep, I dreamed I was on the jungle ride at Disney World. The kookaburra’s laugh is the iconic jungle sound on a number of movie soundtracks, although the kookaburras live only in Australia, New Guinea and the Aru Islands. The kookaburra laugh, on high speed, was also used as Flipper’s “voice” on the television show about the dolphin “Flipper.”
Now, I can’t get that darned song out of my head! Or the kookaburra’s chorus, either. You can find many versions of the song on YouTube.com. Listen to it, if you don’t mind it taking over your brain.
My friends and I fell in love with Tasmanian Devils, irascible carnivorous marsupials that live in the wild only on the island of Tasmania, an Australian state south of the mainland of Australia.
In the wild, Tasmanian Devils usually are only active at night, when they hunt or seek out carrion. They can be very nasty-tempered and make a huge noisy fuss when they eat. You can see why I find them so adorable! They have their own personalities and are inquisitive. (Their main inquiry probably is “When is feeding time?”) Their keepers and the scientists who study them become very fond of the little devils.
If you want to see Tasmanian Devils, you’ll need to visit a wildlife park or zoo in Australia. There, the devils are happy to greet you during the day. At some parks, you can even pet a devil. Just be careful that you don’t reach too close to its head. We saw devils and many other unique-to-Australia animals at East Coast Natureworld near Bicheno and Tasmanian Devil Conservation Park near Taranna, both in Tasmania.
The only other place outside of Australia where devils can be seen is the Copenhagen Zoo, where they were a gift to Denmark, because Mary, Crown Princess of Denmark, is from Tasmania.
Many Australian zoos and parks, particularly in Tasmania, are breeding the devils in special quarantined areas so they won’t contract Devil Facial Tumor Disease, an infectious cancer that affects many wild devils. So far, the disease is incurable. Scientists estimate that half or more of the devil population has disappeared in the past dozen years because of the disease.
Tasmanian Devils play an important role in the Tasmanian environment, plus they are so cute. You can read more about devils in my previous post, I’m a Friend of the Tasmanian Devil. That post includes a Discovery Channel video and links to more information. Below are some videos from our visit to a wildlife park to see the devils.